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Thursday, February 27, 2014

What is Protocol?

When two dissimilar computers systems communicate with each other they require a standard set of instructions for communicating with each other and these instructions are known as protocols. Protocols are the communications standards and the set of rules that source and destination computers must abide by and follow in order to communicate with each other.  They determine that how data will be transmitted between two computer computers. 
They also define the data packet size, authentication, signaling, data compression, error checking and retransmission of the packets. They also define that how the packet information will be organized while traveling over the network.
There are several types of the communication protocols and the most common network protocols are TCP/IP, POP, SMTP, SLIP, LDAP, FTP, SNMP, HTTP, PPP, PPTP, UDP, RIP, OSPF, RIP, DHCP, NNTP, ICMP and BOOTP.  Protocols are sometimes grouped into the lower level, upper level and the application protocols.  On the internet and the LAN/WAN communication networks, TCP/IP is the most common protocol. 
TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol and the Internet Protocol.  TCP/IP in fact is a suite of protocols that consists of more than 65,000 protocols. Each of the protocols in the TCP/IP stack performs different functionalities.  
In the Ethernet based networks and the on the internet, the data is divided into the small packets to make the transmission process speedy and reduce the errors.  These packets then reunite at the destination computer till all the packets are transmitted.  In the OSI (Open System Inter connectivity) model, each protocol works at different layer of the OSI layers model.
Layer 1 (Physical Layer)
Sonet, ISDN, SDH
Layer 2 (Data Link Layer)
Frame Relay, FDDI, Ethernet
Layer 3 (Network Layer)
Layer 4 (Transport Layer)
Layer 5 (Session Layer)
Layer 6 (Presentation Layer)
Layer 7 (Application Layer)
Simple way to remember the layer is “All People Seems To Need Data Processing”
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Friday, May 20, 2011

FREE Electrical Engineering Books:

  1. National Electrical Code
  2. The_Electrical_Engineering_Handbook
  3. Electronics – Theory and Design of Electrical and Electronic Circuits
  4. Troubleshooting Of Electrical Equipment And Control Circuits
  5. ABB – Electrical installation handbook
  6. Electrical Safety Handbok
  7. Electrical Distribution Engineering
  8. Principles and applications of Electrical Engineering
  9. electrical_installation_calculations_vol_2
  10. Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineer
  11. Autocad 2006 Bible
  12. Autocad Electrical Mep 2008
  13. Non conventional energy sources – G.D. Rai
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  22. Basics of Sensors (3.20 MB pdf)
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  51. Electrical Technology B L THERAJA.pdf (Volume II).
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  90. Lessons In Electric Circuits : Volume II – AC (4.32 MB pdf)
  91. Lessons In Electric Circuits : Volume III – Semiconductors (3.54 MB pdf)
  92. Lessons In Electric Circuits : Volume IV – Digital (3.32 MB pdf)
  93. Lessons In Electric Circuits : Volume V – Reference (825.66 KB pdf)
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  105. Fuel Cell Handbook
  106. Pole and tower lines for electric power transmission
  107. Aging Nuclear Power Plants: Managing Plant Life and Decommissioning
  108. Nuclear power: Villain or victim
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  110. AC Adjustable Speed Drives (ASD's)
  111. Basic Instrumentation Measuring Devices and Basic PID Control
  112. Current Loop: A tutorial
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  125. Design of Planar: Power Transformers
  126. Inside Transformers
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  153. Electrical Ratings and Characteristics of Power Semiconductor Switching Devices
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  165. Switched-mode and Resonant dc Power Supplies
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  168. Lessons in Electric Circuits: Volume 1 – DC
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Thursday, February 24, 2011

RS485 Modbus Protocol Guide

The MODBUS protocol "defines a message structure that controllers will recognize and use, regardless of the type of networks over which they communicate. It describes the process a controller uses to request access to another device, how it will respond to requests from the other devices, and how errors will be detected and reported. It establishes a common format for the layout and contents of message fields." - Modbus Protocol Reference Guide, PI-MBUS-300 Rev. J. This document may be purchased from "Groupe Schneider, Basingstoke, England 44 (0) 1256 843184. There are a number of hardware configurations used for MODBUS networks, this guide will consider only the two wire RS485 network as that is the configuration currently supported by the SPR and Integra family of products.


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