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Thursday, February 27, 2014

What is Protocol?

When two dissimilar computers systems communicate with each other they require a standard set of instructions for communicating with each other and these instructions are known as protocols. Protocols are the communications standards and the set of rules that source and destination computers must abide by and follow in order to communicate with each other.  They determine that how data will be transmitted between two computer computers. 
They also define the data packet size, authentication, signaling, data compression, error checking and retransmission of the packets. They also define that how the packet information will be organized while traveling over the network.
There are several types of the communication protocols and the most common network protocols are TCP/IP, POP, SMTP, SLIP, LDAP, FTP, SNMP, HTTP, PPP, PPTP, UDP, RIP, OSPF, RIP, DHCP, NNTP, ICMP and BOOTP.  Protocols are sometimes grouped into the lower level, upper level and the application protocols.  On the internet and the LAN/WAN communication networks, TCP/IP is the most common protocol. 
TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol and the Internet Protocol.  TCP/IP in fact is a suite of protocols that consists of more than 65,000 protocols. Each of the protocols in the TCP/IP stack performs different functionalities.  
In the Ethernet based networks and the on the internet, the data is divided into the small packets to make the transmission process speedy and reduce the errors.  These packets then reunite at the destination computer till all the packets are transmitted.  In the OSI (Open System Inter connectivity) model, each protocol works at different layer of the OSI layers model.
Layer 1 (Physical Layer)
Sonet, ISDN, SDH
Layer 2 (Data Link Layer)
Frame Relay, FDDI, Ethernet
Layer 3 (Network Layer)
RIP, OSPF, EGP, IPX, IPV6, ARP
Layer 4 (Transport Layer)
TCP, UDP, SPX
Layer 5 (Session Layer)
NFS, NCP, SMB
Layer 6 (Presentation Layer)
Layer 7 (Application Layer)
BOOTP, DHCP, DNS, HTTP, POP3, SSH, Telnet
Simple way to remember the layer is “All People Seems To Need Data Processing”
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Friday, May 20, 2011

FREE Electrical Engineering Books:

  1. National Electrical Code
  2. The_Electrical_Engineering_Handbook
  3. Electronics – Theory and Design of Electrical and Electronic Circuits
  4. Troubleshooting Of Electrical Equipment And Control Circuits
  5. ABB – Electrical installation handbook
  6. Electrical Safety Handbok
  7. Electrical Distribution Engineering
  8. Principles and applications of Electrical Engineering
  9. electrical_installation_calculations_vol_2
  10. Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineer
  11. Autocad 2006 Bible
  12. Autocad Electrical Mep 2008
  13. Non conventional energy sources – G.D. Rai
  14. Powerplant engineering-Black & Veatch
  15. HVAC handbook
  16. Basic of AC Drives
  17. Basic of DC Drives
  18. Basic of AC Motors
  19. Basic Control Componant
  20. Basic Motor Control Center
  21. Basics of PLCs (3.66 MB pdf)
  22. Basics of Sensors (3.20 MB pdf)
  23. The Marine Electrical & Electronics Bible.pdf
  24. Design of Electrical Services for Buildings.pdf
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  31. Electrical_installation_handbook Protection & control.
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  36. DOE Handbook of Electrical Safety.pdf
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  41. Dictionary of Electrical Engineering.pdf
  42. The Electrical Engineering Handbook.pdf
  43. Electrical Installation Guide – [electricity] IEC standards
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  46. Electrical Machines II.pdf
  47. Practical_Troubleshooting of_Electrical_Equipment.
  48. Automation in Electrical Power System.rar
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  50. Design of Rotating Electrical Machines.pdf
  51. Electrical Technology B L THERAJA.pdf (Volume II).
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  78. Electrical Transmission & Distribution  Book Of Westinghouse.pdf
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  81. Electrical Science Volume 2 of 4 (1.76 MB pdf)
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  83. Electrical Science Volume 4 of 4 (2.68 MB pdf)
  84. Basics of Electricity (2.54 MB pdf)
  85. Basics of Electrical Products (11.04 MB pdf)
  86. Field Instrumentation Technical Handbook (332 KB pdf)
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  89. Lessons In Electric Circuits : Volume I – DC (4.60 MB pdf)
  90. Lessons In Electric Circuits : Volume II – AC (4.32 MB pdf)
  91. Lessons In Electric Circuits : Volume III – Semiconductors (3.54 MB pdf)
  92. Lessons In Electric Circuits : Volume IV – Digital (3.32 MB pdf)
  93. Lessons In Electric Circuits : Volume V – Reference (825.66 KB pdf)
  94. Lessons In Electric Circuits : Volume VI – Experiments (3.45 MB pdf)
  95. Measurement And Instrumentation Principles (2.89 MB rar)
  96. More About Control Systems (6.60 MB pdf)
  97. Motor Basics (2.23 MB pdf)
  98. Residential Wiring diagrams, codes and symbols : Quick guide
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  100. All about circuits
  101. Electrical Equipment
  102. Essential of Alternating Currents
  103. Principles of alternating current machinery
  104. Problems in alternating current machinery
  105. Fuel Cell Handbook
  106. Pole and tower lines for electric power transmission
  107. Aging Nuclear Power Plants: Managing Plant Life and Decommissioning
  108. Nuclear power: Villain or victim
  109. Energy conversion
  110. AC Adjustable Speed Drives (ASD's)
  111. Basic Instrumentation Measuring Devices and Basic PID Control
  112. Current Loop: A tutorial
  113. Electric Motor Controls
  114. Instrumentation & Control: Process Control Fundamentals
  115. Stepper Motor
  116. Motor Basics
  117. DOE Fundamentals Handbook Electrical Science Volume 1
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  120. DOE Fundamentals Handbook Electrical Science Volume 4
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  122. Transformer Design
  123. Magnetics
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  125. Design of Planar: Power Transformers
  126. Inside Transformers
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  137. How to design a transformer with fractional turns
  138. Winding Data Wire Table Copper wire
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  140. Design Better Power Supply
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  147. Switching power supply design: LM5030 Push Pull converter
  148. Desing Review: 100w, 400kHz, DC/DC Converter with current doubler synchronous rectification
  149. Transformerless Power Supplies: Resistive and Capacitive
  150. Topological issues in single phase power factor correction
  151. Fundamentals of Power Electronics
  152. Application Note DC-006 DC/DC CONVERTERS : Synchronous Rectification
  153. Electrical Ratings and Characteristics of Power Semiconductor Switching Devices
  154. Power Switching Devices and their Static Electrical Characteristics
  155. Cooling of Power Switching Semiconductor Devices
  156. Driving Transistors and Thyristors
  157. Load, Switch, and Commutation Considerations
  158. Protecting Diodes, Transistors, and Thyristors
  159. Switching-aid Circuits with Energy Recovery
  160. Series and Parallel Device Operation and Protection
  161. Naturally Commutating Converters
  162. AC Voltage Regulators
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  164. Power Inverters
  165. Switched-mode and Resonant dc Power Supplies
  166. High Voltage Power Supply Reference Designs
  167. 12 V, 30 W universal input flyback power supply
  168. Lessons in Electric Circuits: Volume 1 – DC
  169. Lessons in Electric Circuits: Volume 2 – AC
  170. Lessons in Electric Circuits: Volume 3 – Semiconductors
  171. Lessons in Electric Circuits: Volume 4 – Digital
  172. target="_blank"Lessons in Electric Circuits: Volume 5 – Reference
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Thursday, February 24, 2011

RS485 Modbus Protocol Guide

The MODBUS protocol "defines a message structure that controllers will recognize and use, regardless of the type of networks over which they communicate. It describes the process a controller uses to request access to another device, how it will respond to requests from the other devices, and how errors will be detected and reported. It establishes a common format for the layout and contents of message fields." - Modbus Protocol Reference Guide, PI-MBUS-300 Rev. J. This document may be purchased from "Groupe Schneider, Basingstoke, England 44 (0) 1256 843184. There are a number of hardware configurations used for MODBUS networks, this guide will consider only the two wire RS485 network as that is the configuration currently supported by the SPR and Integra family of products.
 

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